Saturday, July 11, 2020

Research Papers Samples

Research Papers SamplesResearch papers samples are a convenient way to obtain papers for your classes. You do not have to go around the corner to find such papers. Online services are now available where you can buy paper samples online.What if you need to do some necessary research paper? Do you have the time to search for sources of papers and then put them together? There is no need for this because there are several service providers who offer research papers samples.Research papers are generally divided into the different categories and all these papers are assigned to you based on the category. There are so many different paper categories that it can be hard to remember which paper to assign to which category. However, in a nutshell all of these categories are as follows:- The first category is the Business Methodology papers. You would get business papers from the various sources like finance, accounting, marketing etc. These papers provide information on various business meth ods. It is helpful to know about the different business methodologies.- The second category is the Business process analysis papers. This type of papers consists of the brief analysis of the industry and how this will affect the industry. It also provides an in-depth analysis of the impact of particular business decisions.- The third category is the business analysis papers. This paper is basically about estimating the amount of money and resources available to the firm and then putting those resources to use to make the business grow. These papers are mostly required for various companies that deal with large amounts of money. As the name suggests these papers are involved in the estimation of a firm's financial status.- The fourth category is the Development Methodology Papers. This is very much similar to the Business Methodology papers. However, these papers provide information on the methodology of development.Finally, the last category is the Design methodology. This is actual ly the study of the techniques and approach used by the companies in developing the products and services. This helps firms develop effective strategies to handle their competition.

Wednesday, June 24, 2020

Organizational Behavior Performance Management Styles Business Essay - Free Essay Example

Organizational behavior is defined as a actions and attitudes of individuals and groups toward one another and towards the organization as a whole, and its effect on the organizations operation and performance ( /definition/organizationalbehavior.html #ixzz16Vjf8nTW). So organizational performance always determined by organizational behavior. Organizational behavior is basically determined from the behavior of the people working for the organization. So while keeping in view organizational behavior, organizational performance includes multiple activities, which help in creating the goals of the organization, and monitor the advancement towards the target. In order to achieve goals more efficiently and effectively this is used to make adjustments. The frustration of most of the owners and business executives usually is for Organization Performance. This is so even as their employees are hard working and are busy doing their respective tasks, the company is unable to achieve the scheduled results. Results are achieved not due to the diligent efforts made by the employees but more due to unexpected events and good fortune. In order for the any business to be successful, tasks must be defined and accomplished. It is important for an organization to develop strategies that should be designed around the skills that would enhance the performance of the organization. This could be accomplished by introducing Organizational Perfo rmance Management Systems. These are a number of major movements and methods that could increase the performance of an organization. Each one of these methods includes regular recurring activities that are used to establish the goals of the organization. These activities are also required to monitor the progress of the organization towards the goals. They are used to make adjustments to achieve the desired targets more effectively and efficiently. ( So the organizational performance is determined by the organizational behavior and organizational behavior is determined by the following factors Management styles Motivations Organizational structure Culture Work environment Training and development 1.1 Management styles Management styles are democratic, autocratic and consultative. Selecting the correct management style may lead to greater motivation and productivity from your staff. However, it is not as easy as just picking a style. Managers personalities and characteristics will influ+ence the type of style adopted. For example a timid manager will find an autocratic management style difficult to adopt. Democratic Management Style A democratic manager assigns authority to his/her staff, giving them responsibility to complete the task given to them (also known as empowerment). Staff will complete the tasks using their own work methods. However, the task must be completed on time. Employees are involved in decision making giving them a sense of belonging and motivating individuals. Because staffs feel a sense of belonging and are motivated the quality of decision making and work also improves. Although popular in business today, a democratic management style can slow decision making down because staffs need to be consulted. Also some employees may take advantage of the fact that their manager is democratic by not working to their full potential and allowing other group members to democratic manager delegates authority to his/her staff, giving them responsibility carry them. Autocratic Management Style In contrast to the above an autocratic manager dictates orders to their staff and makes decisions without any consultation. The leader likes to control the situation they are in. Decisions are quick because staffs are not consulted and work is usually completed on time. However this type of management style can decrease motivation and increase staff turnover because staff are not consulted and do not feel valued. So the performance of organization decreased. Consultative Management style A consultative management style can be viewed as a combination of the above two. The manager will ask views and opinions from their staff, allowing them to feel involved but will ultimately make the final decision. This type of management increase staff motivation and commitment which increase the performance of organization. 1.2 Motivation Motivation is the way to energize the employees to work for the organization to achieve the required goals of the organization. There are following motivational theories for the organizations developed over the time Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Maslow believed that all people are motivated by the same things. He identified 5 human needs he believed people wanted to satisfy. As one set of needs was satisfied by an individual, it would stop acting as a motivator, but the individual would then be motivated by the next set of needs. Names for the Needs Meaning Relevance to Business Self Actualisation The need to fulfill your potential. Employers allow staff to work at what they are good at, and to organize their work in the ways they wish to do it. Ego (esteem) The need to be valued. Rewards if targets are met merit pay rises, promotion; employers offer praise and acknowledge the good work of the employee. Social (acceptance) The need to belong to and work in a group. Team meetings, company magazines, staff social events; working in groups. Safety (security) The need to be protected. Safe machinery; protection in employment; contracts etc Basic (physiological) Food, warmth, sleep, clothes Heating, toilets, canteen; wages Dual-Factor Theory Frederick Herzberg Frederick Herzberg and his associates began their research into motivation during the 1950s, examining the models and assumptions of Maslow and others. The result of this work was the formulation of what Herzberg termed theÂÂ  Motivation-Hygiene Theory (M-H). The basic hypotheses of this theory are that: 1. There are two types of motivators, one type which results in satisfaction with the job, and the other which merely prevents dissatisfaction. The two types are quite separate and distinct from one another. Herzberg called the factors which result in job satisfactionÂÂ  motivatorsÂÂ  and those that simply prevented dissatisfactionÂÂ  hygienes 2. The factors that lead to job satisfaction (the motivators) are: achievement recognition work itself responsibility advancement 3. The factors which may prevent dissatisfaction (the hygienes) are: company policy and administration working conditions supervision interpersonal relations money status security Douglas McGregor X and Y theory McGregors Theory X managers believes that an employee dislikes work and will avoid it if possible. As a result Theory X workers must be controlled, directed and threatened with punishment if necessary to make them work. McGregors Theory Y manager believes that an employee finds work as natural as play or rest. As a result they are able and willing to organize, control and direct themselves, and to accept authority and responsibility. By adopting the influencing factor from these theories, required motivation level can be achieved which increase employees commitment and organizational performance. 1.3 Organizational structure Business Culture Importance For the business culture importance it took a long time for it to be renowned as an important factor in business success (or lack of success). Building a Positive Corporate Culture 1. Culture Carriers. These are key people, usually managers, who represent and spread the core values of the corporate culture. 2. Stability of the group. It is more difficult for a culture to emerge if people are changing all the time. 3. Stories. A group packages up its culture into stories which are frequently told and re-told, 4. Heroes. Individuals who typify to an extreme the values of the group. 5. Symbols. These may be staff mottoes, the corporate mission statement or anything that symbolizes the core values. 6. Rites. These are specific occasions, such as the annual office party, when the core values are publicly displayed. 7. Rituals. This means a standard pattern of behavior at a specific occasion, such as the office party if things are always done in a particular pattern. 8. Courses. Attending in-house courses is an important way of team-building and communicating the core values. 9. Cultural Networks. This means the informal contacts between emp loyees where they reinforce core values, especially by passing them from older to younger group members. Types of Corporate Culture 1. Adaptive Cultures. These have as a core value the ability to adapt to change, especially in response to changing external circumstances. 2. Inert Culture. This is a dead culture totally unable to change. 3. Networked Organizations. These are very sociable networks of small teams. They are highly creative. But loyalty is low. 4. Mercenary Organizations. These are ruthless business machines dedicated to work and to success. But sociability is very low. 5. Fragmented Organizations. These are really loose alliances of very independent workers, such as lawyers. Sociability and loyalty are both very low. 6. Communal Organizations. These have high loyalty and high sociability. They act like one big happy family. Recruiting new staff with similar values is important. Advantages of Strong Corporate Culture 1. Instructions are interpreted in a common way, so work is done to a similar standard and in a similar manner. 2. Loyalty is increased, and replacing workers is an expense to be avoided. 3. Motivation, and therefore productivity, is increased. 4. Management control is increased. Disadvantage of Corporate Culture 1. In a Multi-National Corporation there will nearly be conflicts between the local national culture and the imported corporate culture. 2. Businesses are not places with a homogenous culture. Most businesses are too large for people to identify across the whole organization. Instead, people identify with smaller sub-groups. So a business is, in fact, a mixture of sub-cultures some of which may even be deviant. There is also a strong likelihood of conflict between some of the different sub-cultures. 3. The relationship between a improved business performance and strong corporate culture is, as far as the data can tell, very weak. It may be then that corporate cultures are less about improved performance and more about making the managers feel they have achieved something; a cynic might argue that managers like to be surrounded by copies of themselves. 4. Business is rarely simple, clear and unambiguous enough to allow of one simple message of the kind envisaged by proponen ts of the corporate Facilitates communication between functions improve decision makinge culture idea. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE Organizational structure is the formal system of task and reporting relationships that controls, coordinates, and motivates employees so that they cooperate to achieve an organizations goals. 2.0 TYPES OF STRUCTURE Functional Structure Functional structure groups people together because they hold similar positions in an organization, perform a similar set of tasks, or use the same kind of skills. This division of labor and specialization allows an organization to become more effective. Advantages of a Functional Structure Coordination Advantages Easy communication among Quick decisions -. Learning Makes it easier for people to learn from one anothers experiences. Motivation Advantages Facilitates performance evaluation for supervisor Facilitates performance evaluation for peers Creates teamwork that promotes high performance. Creates a career ladder Disadvantages of a Functional Structure Difficulty in serving needs of all products efficiently Coordination customer with varied needs are attracted to the organizations , they may find it hard to service these different needs by using a single set of functions. As companies grow, they often expand their operations nationally, and servicing the needs of different regional customers by using a single set of manufacturing, sales, or purchasing functions becomes very difficult. 3.0 Divisional Structures: Product, Market, and Geographic A divisional structure that overlay functional grouping allows an organization to coordinate intergroup relationships more effectively than does a functional structure. Product Structure Each product division contains the functions necessary to that service the specific goods or services it produces. Market Structure Group functions into divisions that can be responsive to the needs of particular types of customers. Geographic Structure Each geographic division has access to a full set of the functions it needs to provide its goods and services. Advantages of a Divisional Structure Coordination Advantages Quality products and customer service Facilitates communication between progress decision making functions, thereby increasing performance. Customized management and problem solving Facilitates teamwork Facilitates decision making As divisions develop a common identity and approach to solving problems, their cohesiveness in- creases, and the result is improved decision making. Motivation Advantages Clear connection between performance and reward Customized service regional managers and employees are close to their customers and may develop personal relationships with them. Identification with division employees close identification with their section can increase their commitment, loyalty, and job satisfaction. Disadvantages of a Divisional Structure High operating and managing costs Poor communication between divisions Conflicts among divisions 4.0 Matrix Structure A intricate form of differentiation that some organizations use to control their activities, results in the matrix structure, which simultaneously groups people in two ways- by the function of which they are a member and by the product team on which they are currently working. In practice, the employees who are members of the product teams in a matrix structure have two bosses-a functional boss and a product boss. Coordination Advantages Facilitates rapid product development Maximizes cooperation and communication between team members Facilitates innovation and creativity Facilitates face-to-face problem solving (through teams) Provides a work setting in which managers with different functional expertise can cooperate to solve non-programmed decision-making problems. Facilitates frequent changes of membership in product teams Disadvantages of a Matrix Structure Increase role conflict and role ambiguity High levels of work stress Limited opportunities for promotion Organizational Structure of Tarmac Ltd In Tarmac Ltd., the organizational structure is of divisional as it has been divided into different division like production division, engineering division etc. In this structure, all the employees are free to work and give their ideas for the future planning. In this way on one side the management gets different ideas but the ideas lack the professional approach as all the employees would not have professional qualification. In this way the implementation of those ideas can lead the organization away from the main goals of it. Enterprise: In case of enterprise the organizational structure is mixed- divisional, functional and geographical. The owner of enterprise makes the main decision and it is transferred to all the employees in different division and geographical locations. But on the other hands the employees are also given the authority to decide on the spot according to the situation. This type of organization structure helps the organization to grow and get more profit in the near future but on the other hands the control of the management loses on the employee. 5.0 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRUCTURE AND CULTURE: The task of a manager is to create an organizational structure and culture that: Encourages employees to work hard and to develop supportive work attitudes Allows people and groups to cooperate and work together effectively. Structure and culture affect: Behavior Motivation Performance Teamwork and cooperation Intergroup and Interdepartmental relationships The way a structure or culture is designed or evolves over time affects the way people and groups behave within the organization. Once an organization decides how it wants its members to behave, what attitudes it wants to encourage, and what it wants its members to accomplish, it can then design its structure and encourage the development of the cultural values and norm to obtain these desired attitudes, behaviors, and goals. In case of Tarmac Ltd; the divisional structure and sharing culture describe the organizational in best. Its culture describes Shared values Participative work Takin g care of employees Follow rules and regulations Career development This type of culture motivates the employees to work and enhance the performance of the organization. On the other hands in case of Enterprise mixed structure and open communication developed the culture of Customer satisfaction Growth Employee development Profit But the company does not care about the social factor as to help the society and take care of the environment. This causes to create a negative image in the mind of the customers and can decrease the market share of the Enterprise. On the other hands the employees are not involved in the decision making and are supposed to follow the rules set by top management without employees involvement which cause the de-motivation in the employees. Work environment Basically the culture determines the working environment of the organization. Positive and friendly working environment always increase the output of the employees. So because of the positive and friendly environment the performance of organization improves. Development and Training From the performance appraisal the deficiencies of the employees are assessed. To fill the skills gap of the employees for the job, suitable training is designed. The process of training assessment normally starts from the recruitment process, to fill the skill gap. The need for training assessment and development of training strategy is explained by the flow chart as below ( Development and training Process After assessment of the training and development, training strategy is developed and individuals are selected for training. The development of training strategies starts from the review of business strategy which determines the skills requirement and help in the development of training strategy for the employees. After developing training strategy, top management select the traininr for the effective training. Training may be of two types On the job training Off the job training The type of training depend upon the availability of traininer and level of training required. It is axplianed by the flow chart below. ( The delivery methods are selected, either practical training on job or class room training. Training contents are developed according to the new skills required by the trainee and dynamic nature of the job. If the development and training strategy is implemented, the performanc e of the organization increase because of the availability of right skills required for the jobs in the organizations. This also increases the employee motivation level. 6.0 Role of technology in business performance: Technology plays an important role in the success of the business. In this era of technology and modern ways of communication, technology plays its role for the success of the business in the following ways. Cheep and mass communication with the customers by advertisement on line on the internet and on the TV etc Easy and quick communication by using different ways like telephone, internet etc Attracting more customers Online shopping facility Management the business from one location in different geographical location In the case of Tarmac Ltd, it is using the technology in the following ways for the success of the company Managing the utilization and production functions effectively and efficiently by using the latest computer technology Online survey of the customers and feedback from the customers so that the management of Tarmac ltd would be able to assess the market needs and produce the products required by the customers Alignment of the different divisions for the proper functioning of the company to achieve its goals. Effective supply chain management to save the cost and increase its profit along with the customers satisfaction. In this way the technology is playing its part for the success of the business. Obstacles in organizational performance There are following limitation which limit the improvement of organizational performance Cost Time limitation Behavioural factors Legal requirements Technological changes Cost: Cost limits the performance of the organizations because the organizations are performing tor the profit motives. If the cost of the organizations is high, the profit will decrease, so it will not be possible to for the organization to achieve it profit goals. On the other hands the availability of the finance is not free of cost. If organizations run out of cash during the normal activities of business, it will cause the default of the organization. In this way the cost is the main obstacle in the performance of the organization. Time limitation: The main goal of the organizations is to achieve its targets as planned by the organization. If the tasks are not achieved according to the planning, it means the organization is not performing well. Some times to achieve the targets, organization required extra resources like more employees and machinery. The acquirements of extra resources incur cost to the company, so it is restricted by the financial resources. In this way there is always an opportunity cost for the organization in using the resources which decrease the performance of organization. Legal requirements There are always legal requirement for every activity of the organization. These legal requirements put an upper and lower cap on the performance of the company. 7.0 Role of Management in Change process: Management plays an important role in the change process. In technological dynamic environment it is the responsibility of the management to assess the change in the technology and arrange training for the employee so that employees can have required competences to perform their job efficiently and effectively. On the other hands everybody wants career development for better job and better performance. So in the modern dynamic environment most of the employees of the companies look into the requirement of the market and acquire new skills to fill the skill gap in the market. The training for the new skill helps them to get better position in the organizations. So it is both employer and employees who assess the need for new skills to fill the skills gap in the dynamic modern society. 8.0 Conclusion On the basis of above analysis it is clear that organizational behavior play an important role in the performance of the organization. The management styles, organizational structure, employee motivation level and training for the new skill are the key factors which help in the improvement of the organizational performance. In the modern dynamic society employees and employers (managers) play equally important role to fill the skill gap in the dynamic technology through training and improve the performance of the organization.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Marketing Plan - 7297 Words

Sample Marketing Plan The sample plan in this document is provided as a guide only. Please apply your ideas to this guide, and use all applicable segments to construct your marketing plan. Please refer to the assignment sheet posted in blackboard for more specific instructions on this assignment. This is a sample marketing plan for a small business, Canterbury Renovations. It’s a guide to how you can prepare a marketing plan for your business. Your plan may require more or less information than this sample marketing plan. As you work through the plan, conduct the appropriate research and planning for your business to ensure your plan results in effective marketing. 1.1 Mission Statement The core activity of Canterbury†¦show more content†¦This gives Canterbury a larger target market as well as being able to offer clients more services for their home upgrades. 2.3 Price Every business needs to set prices for products and services. A pricing strategy outlines how prices will be set and how much flexibility there will be for individual prices. It includes details such as discounts, specials, package deals and moving old stock. Check competitors’ prices and policies to ensure you are being realistic with your policies. Example Canterbury Renovations pricing policy includes: †¢ high margin †¢ priced for traditional customers †¢ competitively priced against competition for the quality †¢ discounts offered when pricing three concurrent jobs at once (e.g. a kitchen, bathroom and laundry renovation) †¢ no set prices as each job is quoted according to its requirements †¢ progress payments offered †¢ discount offered for prompt payments 2.4 Promotion Consider how you currently promote and market your business and what is and isn’t working. Look at what your competitors do for promotion, noting what does and doesn’t work for them as well. Example Canterbury Renovations is a new business so there are no existing marketing activities in place. There is no brand awareness in the renovation market. A graphic designer has developed a logo, business cards and letterheads ready toShow MoreRelatedA Marketing Plan For A New Marketing Strategy966 Words   |  4 Pagesthe governmental legal requirements and, on the other hand, defines the organization’s policy administration. For a triumphant marketing plan, understanding the government legal approaches allows for efficient operation and inter-relationship with other organization. Similarly, internal legal policies allow the company to uphold its operation in a set manner. 4.0: Marketing Audit A market audit process is a tool that can never be neglected despite the situation. However, very few companies carryRead MoreMarketing Plan For A Small Business2998 Words   |  12 Pagesin detail. †¢ The benefits of TQM when implementing the strategic plan to meet goals or increasing profit within a small business. †¢ The economy’s motivation of small businesses stability as compared to large businesses that are well established, also the financial assistance of other organization including the government. †¢ Different categories of a company and the importance of CRM to any size business. †¢ To compare the marketing plan of a small business and a large business where it reflects theRead MoreMarketing Plan827 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿Marketing Business Environment Marketing Planning: An Overview of Marketing 6 main questions to ask in order to create your marketing plan: 1. Where are we now? (Business Mission, Marketing audit, SWOT analysis) 2. How did we get here? (Business Mission, Marketing audit, SWOT analysis) 3. Where are we heading? 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A marketing process can be realized by the marketing mix, which is outlined in step 4. The last step in the process is the marketing controlling. The marketing plan can function from two points: strategy and tactics (P. Kotler, K.L. Keller). In most organizations, strategic planning is an annual process, typically covering just the year ahead. Occasionally, a few organizations may look atRead MoreMarketing Planning : The Marketing Plan Essay1545 Words   |  7 PagesTo attract mixed segment ther is need to marketing planning is indeed the key to the whole marketing process. The marketing objectives state just where the company intends to be; at some specific time in the future. James Quinn succinctly defined objectives in general as: Goals state what is to be achieved and when results are to be accomplished, but they do not state how the results are to be achieved. They typically relate to what products will be where in what market. They are essentiallyRead MoreMarketing Plan For Subway Marketing1516 Words   |  7 PagesExecutive summary The marketing plan has close ties with the overall financial and business plan. This plan contents a strategy for success, and breaks it down into coherent, actionable components that will aid The Sub Shop to implement marketing activities to provide a firm return on investment. The following areas will help explain how the company plans to differentiate the business and product offering from the competition, and define the strategy that will drive its business forward. The aimRead MoreMarketing Plan1891 Words   |  8 Pagesa breakeven point in the second year after opening the store and become profitable in the third year of being in this business. In the first year, our profits will be low, due to low sales and high distribution, inventory, marketing and advertising and sales expenses. Marketing expenses will be very high in the first year. We have to inform the customers about this new product and get the consumers to try out this new concept. It will take â€Å"Just passin’ Thru† some time to build up the customer base

Monday, May 18, 2020

Causes And Consequences Of Dengue Virus - 1577 Words

It is Never Too Late to Vaccinate â€Å"2.5 billion people in more than a hundred countries are estimated to be at risk of dengue virus infection, with millions of cases occurring every year around the world† (Saminathan). Dengue fever can range from a benign sickness to a dangerous hemorrhagic disease. Internal bleeding and circulatory collapse are a few symptoms that can happen if dengue goes untreated. Dengue is a huge problem, like yellow fever it is carried from place to place by mosquitos. Once inside the mosquito the disease is only waiting to rear it’s ugly head. Dengue only needs to wait to be transferred into the host body. Dengue needs to be eliminated. DNA based diseases can be just as fatal as pathogen (germ) based diseases. In leukemia DNA of the blood cells become corrupted causing them to reproduce quicker, and be unable to fulfill their purpose. The rapid reproduction fills the bone marrow with useless cells, stopping the healthy cells from functioning. This process is similar to ÃŽ ²-thalassemia. This disease has been studied by the National Library of Medicine. They have discovered that due to a mutation in the gene hemoglobin, beta, the body is unable to produce hemoglobin. Without this vital protein people can develop jaundice, malformed bones, blood clots, an enlarged, spleen, liver, or heart. People with this disease need regular red blood cell transfusions to counteract their lack of red blood cells (National Library of Medicine). For all of theseShow MoreRelatedImpacts Of Tourism On Tourism1112 Words   |  5 PagesUS, Caribbean, and Latin American countries is the Zika virus. The Zika virus is spread by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquitos. It can be spread from a pregnant woman to her unborn fetus, which can result in microcephaly, along with other birth defects. Zika can also be contracted by having sex with an infected partner or by a blood transfusion. Currently, there is no treatment or vaccine to prevent being infected with the virus. According to the CDC, the best prevention method is toRead MoreAn Ecological Perspective On Modification Of Mosquitoes1476 Words   |  6 Pagesdischarges small quantity of saliva along with an anticoagulant substance to soften the surrounding tissue (Yong). Presence of the foreign substances initiate a robust defense mechanism response, which includes the release of histamine. The histamine causes the infected area to swell, making it easier for the immune s ystem to fight against the foreign substance (Shim). His arm suddenly becomes itchy due to his body’s systemic response. Paul, vigorously scratching his arm for instant relief, senses anRead MoreA Science Fiction Movie On The Big Screen Essay1260 Words   |  6 Pageshumanity via disease or virus, it is easy to take it lightly and brush it off as another Hollywood concoction. 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Lately, there are been a lot of breakout of new diseases that affect the population in different regions of the world and that are spreading to new regionsRead MoreGlobal Warming Has A Effect On The Size Of The Vector Population912 Words   |  4 Pagespathogens are predominantly affected by high temperature, as weather affects their survival and reproduction rates, habitat suitability, and abundance.7,14 Consequently, global warming has a direct impact on the size of the vector population. Malaria, dengue, plague, schistosomiasis, Lyme disease and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases that may be affected.2,7 Climatic conditions strongly affect water-borne diseases and diseases transmitted through insectsRead MoreDevelopmental Abnormalities Caused By Zika Virus Infection1955 Words   |  8 Pagesabnormalities caused by Zika virus infection Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is transmitted by mosquito and related to Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, yellow fever and dengue viruses (1). Various species of Aedes mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of Zika virus (2). The virus was first found in Uganda in 1947 when a rhesus monkey that was placed in a cage developed a fever and its serum was injected into mice, resulting in the isolation of Zika virus from the mouse brains (3)Read MoreCommon Infectious Disease : Zika Virus And The Epidemiology, And How It Has Impacted The Nursing Practice1387 Words   |  6 PagesZika Virus There are many infectious and/or communicable diseases that circulate the world and infect many people and communities. Emerging infectious diseases are those that in which the incidences have increased in the past several decades or have the potential to increase in the near future (Stanhope and Lancaster, 2016, p. 293). The newest emerging infectious disease that has begun to spread worldwide is transmitted through a simple mosquito bite and is known as the Zika virus. The purposeRead MoreThe Epidemic Of The Ebola Outbreak Of West Africa1322 Words   |  6 Pagesrecent history was the Ebola virus outbreak, and one personal crisis I have experienced is a bipolar crisis. The Ebola outbreak in West Africa first broke the news in March 2014. Considered an epidemic, this outbreak killed five times more than any other Ebola outbreak combined. The virus is traced back to a two year old toddler who died in a south-eastern Guinea small village in December 2013. It took nearly three months for the health officials to identify the cause of people’s illness was EbolaRead MoreThere Are Some Micro-Organisms With The Capability To Cause1411 Words   |  6 Pagescapability to cause disease defined as pathogens (1). Now, imagine a weighing-scale representing the pathogen’s interactions with its environment. The left characterizes the virulence factors which are properties of a micro-organism to increase its chances of establishing itself within a host (2), the right signifies the host equipped with a sophisticated immune system. Suddenly, the scale tips to the left, representing a biological war which favours an outcome where the ability to cause disease hasRead MoreHumans Cause Global Warming1142 Words   |  5 Pagessummer that created arid and parched conditions, a situation that would become normal as a consequence of the greenhouse effect. As countries warm, disease carrying insects migrate, bringing their diseases with them.Climate greatly influences some of the most deadly and widespread diseases currently affecting millions of people across the world with the spread of diseases like Malaria, West Nile virus and Dengue fever to parts of the planet. With greatly reduced rainfall, more severe droughts and loss

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Adam and Eve Breaking the Social Construct With John...

Man above woman, or woman above man? For the entirety of human civilization, this question of gender hierarchy has been divisive issue. Regardless, Milton does not hesitate to join the heat of the battle, and project his thoughts to the world. Since the publication of Paradise Lost, many of Milton’s readers have detected in his illustration of the prelapsarian couple, particularly of Adam, a powerful patriarchal sentiment: â€Å"he for God only, and she for God in him† (Milton, IV.299). In essence, this idea declares that Adam and Eve possess unequal roles – Adam is better than Eve, as men are better than women, in accordance to the deeply conventional reading of the relations between the sexes. Eve’s purpose for Adam makes her less†¦show more content†¦At first sight, he is spiritually attracted to Eve because she was created from his rib: â€Å"His flesh, his bone; to give thee being I lent / Out of my side to thee, nearest my heart, / Substant ial life, to have thee by my side† (IV.483-485). Consequently, Adam immediately loves her, since he feels a strong manifestation of himself in her. However, a problem arises when Adam’s love for Eve transforms into passion, two distinct emotions that are identified by the angel Rafael: â€Å"In loving thou dost well; in passion not, / Wherein true love consist not. Love refines / The thoughts, and heart enlarges hath his seat in reason† (VIII.588-590). Love and passion are different because the former â€Å"refines† reason while the latter corrupts it – passion can be dangerous to reason. However, in his discussion with Rafael, Adam’s initial depiction of Eve hints that he feels both love and passion for Eve. In describing her, Adam says: Her loveliness, so absolute she seems And in herself complete, so well to know Her own, that what she wills to do or say, Seems wisest, virtuousest, discreetest, best: All higher Knowledge in her presence falls Degraded; Wisdom in discourse with her Loses †¦ (VIII.447-452) He confesses that his passion for Eve overpowers his own reason. He feels that this passion exceeds his own self-control andShow MoreRelatedFrankenstein Study Guide14107 Words   |  57 Pagesyoung scientist brings on his own destruction by constructing an artificial man and bringing it to life. Through the characters of Dr. Frankenstein and his creature, this powerful novel explores the themes of ambition, science, moral responsibility, social isolation, and psychological balance. With its wild and desolate settings and its supernatural being, Frankenstein is an example of the gothic novel. With a scientific fantasy at the center of its plot, the novel is also regarded as a forerunner of

Decubitis Ulcers Essay Example For Students

Decubitis Ulcers Essay Decubitis UlcersJ. Caldwell P.N.S. 1.Decubitis Ulcers are also known as bed sores.(Marsh 1) They are mostly seen inGeriatrics patients. They occur in people who are put on bed rest, or long periods of wheelchair use. A traumatic decubitis ulcer is precipitated by continuous pressure on the skin and deep tissue with ischemic necrosis (Plewig 369). These particular ulcers are mainly found on bony parts of the body. They develop when the cells die because there is a tremendous amount of pressure put on the skin and it is trapped between a mattress or chair and tiny blood vessels collapse. The parts of the body that are affected by these ulcers are the back of the head, ear, shoulders, elbows, hips, sacrum, knees, ankles, and heels. Decubitis ulcers can be classified into three grades. (1) Area is more reddened, skin is dry. (2) Area is more reddened, epidermal layer of the skin is broken, and blisters form. (3) Deeper layers of the skin are affected, blisters are broken open, and bone may be visible. (Hegner, Caldwell 42 1)2. Before treating decubitis ulcers, viewing of the nurse or caregivers feelings about the care is important. Heshe should determine whether or not they agree with the patients wishes and is capable of completing that care. When making these decisions, consider the stage of the ulcer and the treatment needed, the benefits and the burdens of the treatment, and the anticipated treatment outcome (Darkovich 47). After these views are looked at, there are many treatments available. If the area is reddened, all that is needed is a gentle massage. If the skin is open, bacteriostatic agents, antiseptic sprays, and antibiotic ointments are used to reduce or prevent bacteria. The surgical process called grafting is practiced to treat these ulcers. This is when a patch of skin is removed from one part of the body, and is placed onto the infected area. Sheepskin pads, alternating air pressure mattresses, heel protectors, and egg crate mattresses are also used. (Hegner, Caldwell 427)3. The fir st lab test that I found is a urinalysis. This is a test of the urine to detect alcohol, drugs, sugar, and other abnormal substences. This tells us if there is any bacteria in the body, and if it is located in the decubitis ulcer, so we can know if it is infected or not. The second lab test that is done on these ulcers is CD, this determines the antigens on the white blood cells. This shows whether or not the patients immune system can fight off the bacteria in the ulcer. The last lab test, is a culture. This is done by scraping the side of the infected area and putting it under a microscope to view the living, harmful organisms in the ulcer. All of the lab tests that are done determine the seriousness of the ulcer and what the best medication would be to help cure it. 4. Elase is a drug that helps relieve signs and symptoms of infection. This inhibits protein synthesis in bacteria at the level of the 50s bacterial ribosome. It is used for skin and soft tissue infections, intra-abdominal infections, and CNS infections. The pregnancy category is unknown. The side effects are depression, confusion, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rashes, and fever. It is absorbed orally and distributed widely. It crosses placenta and enters breast milk. Drug interactions are oralhypoglycemia agents, warfarin, phenytoin, rifampin, vitamin B, folic acid, and acetominophen. It is available in 12.5 mg/kg q 6 hours. The assessments are to check for infection in sputum, urine, stool, and WBC. Check vital signs. Planning-contradicted in hypersensitivity. Implementation- medication should be given around the clock. Administer over 30-60 minutes. Evaluation- the length of time for the medication to work depends on the organisms in the ulcer and the size of it. .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623 , .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623 .postImageUrl , .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623 , .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623:hover , .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623:visited , .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623:active { border:0!important; } .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623:active , .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623 .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5b25a1de5a972ed6083a996cb6565623:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Thesis on The New View of Reconstruction thesis Essay5. The normal readings of vital signs should be blood pressure 100-150/60-90, pulse 60-90, respiration 12-20, and temperature 98.6 farenheight. When the patient is in severe pain the vital signs will increase. The vital signs will also increase if bacteria is present in the ulcer. In geriatric patients, the vital signs should be monitored often because they are in more danger than average aged adults. A fever is considered 101 farenheight, and anything higher or lower than the above recordings is abnormal. The vital signs are not usually affected by the lab tests that are done. 6,7. I am assigned to a make-believe patient. Her name is Mrs. Roberts and she is 67 yearsold. She has a stage 3 decubitis ulcer and I have to give her complete care. The first thing I would do when I walk into the room is check her name band and chart. The chart says tochange her dressing on the decubitis ulcer and give her a complete bed bath. First I would take her vital signs and record them. Then I would start changing the dressing on the ulcer.While Im changing the dressing I would look for and record everything that I see on the wound. (Lynch 909) Then, I would give her a bath, making sure her bed sheets are not wet or wrinkled because that is harmful to the skin. I would also look on the chart to see how long ago it was since her position was changed. If it was two hours ago, I would then change her position, but not place her on the ulcer. Next, I would check her intake and output, an encourage her to drink more fluids. If she hasnt drank atleast 300 cc. I would also check w hat her diet is and try to get her to eat more nutritious foods and a lot of foods with iron included. After all of that was completed, I would take her vital signs again to make sure that there was no dramtic changes, and record them on the chart. 8. The evaluation of the care depends on whether or not the ulcer has gotten better or worse. Five ways to measure your success is to check if the ulcer has gotten bigger or smaller. If it is smaller, you benefited the patient. Another way is to check if the ulcer is infected or not. Also, if the patient is in less pain, and the ulcer is starting to heal, you have succeeded. The last measure is to check if the ulcer is still draining, or if it has a scab, if it has drainage, you need to start all over again and change the procedures, (Turkington, Dover 41). BibliographyDarkovich, Sharon L. When is no treatment the right treatment. Nursing 96. July1996. 47. Hegner, Barbara R. and Ester Caldwell. A study of maturity. Geriatrics. New York: Delmar,1996. 419+. Lynch, Sam. Principles and Practices of Dermatology. New York: 1990. 908+. Marsh, Reta. Care of Decubitis Ulcers. Independent Living May-June 1994: 21. Turkington, Carol A. and Jeffrey Dover. Skin Deep. New York: Cox,1996. 41.Words/ Pages : 1,367 / 24

Welding and Fillet Welds Essay Example For Students

Welding and Fillet Welds Essay Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar 3. 3 Welding and welded connections Welding is the process of joining two pieces of metal by creating a strong metallurgical bond between them by heating or pressure or both. It is distinguished from other forms of mechanical connections, such as riveting or bolting, which are formed by friction or mechanical interlocking. It is one of the oldest and reliable methods of joining. Welding offers many advantages over bolting and riveting. Welding enables direct transfer of stress between members eliminating gusset and splice plates necessary for bolted structures. Hence, the weight of the joint is minimum. In the case of tension members, the absence of holes improves the efficiency of the section. It involves less fabrication cost compared to other methods due to handling of fewer parts and elimination of operations like drilling, punching etc. and consequently less labour leading to economy. Welding offers air tight and water tight joining and hence is ideal for oil storage tanks, ships etc. Welded structures also have a neat appearance and enable the connection of complicated shapes. Welded structures are more rigid compared to structures with riveted and bolted connections. A truly continuous structure is formed by the process of fusing the members together. Generally welded joints are as strong or stronger than the base metal, thereby placing no restriction on the joints. Stress concentration effect is also considerably less in a welded connection. Some of the disadvantages of welding are that it requires skilled manpower for welding as well as inspection. Also, non-destructive evaluation may have to be carried out to detect defects in welds. Welding in the field may be difficult due to the location or environment. Welded joints are highly prone to cracking under fatigue loading. Large residual stresses and distortion are developed in welded connections. 3. 3. 1 Fundamentals of welding A welded joint is obtained when two clean surfaces are brought into contact with each other and either pressure or heat, or both are applied to obtain a bond. The tendency of atoms to bond is the fundamental basis of welding. The inter-diffusion Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar between the materials that are joined is the underlying principle in all welding processes. The diffusion may take place in the liquid, solid or mixed state. In welding the metallic materials are joined by the formation of metallic bonds and a perfect connection is formed. In practice however, it is very difficult to achieve a perfect joint; for, real surfaces are never smooth. When welding, contact is established only at a few points in the surface, joins irregular surfaces where atomic bonding occurs. Therefore the strength attained will be only a fraction of the full strength. Also, the irregular surface may not be very clean, being contaminated with adsorbed moisture, oxide film, grease layer etc. In the welding of such surfaces, the contaminants have to be removed for the bonding of the surface atoms to take place. This can be accomplished by applying either heat or pressure. In practical welding, both heat and pressure are applied to get a good joint. As pointed out earlier, any welding process needs some form of energy, often heat, to connect the two materials. The relative amount of heat and pressure required to join two materials may vary considerably between two extreme cases in which either heat or pressure alone is applied. When heat alone is applied to make the joint, pressure is used merely to keep the joining members together. Examples of such a process are Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) etc. On the other hand pressure alone is used to make the bonding by plastic deformation, examples being cold welding, roll welding, ultrasonic welding etc. There are other welding methods where both pressure and heat are employed, such as resistance welding, friction welding etc. A flame, an arc or resistance to an electric current, produces the required heat. Electric arc is by far the most popular source of heat used in commercial welding practice. 3. 3. 2 Welding process In general, gas and arc welding are employed; but, almost all structural welding is arc welding. Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar In gas welding a mixture of oxygen and some suitable gas is burned at the tip of a torch held in the welder’s hand or by an automatic machine. Acetylene is the gas used in structural welding and the process is called oxyacetylene welding. The flame produced can be used both for cutting and welding of metals. Gas welding is a simple and inexpensive process. But, the process is slow compared to other means of welding. It is generally used for repair and maintenance work. The most common welding processes, especially for structural steel, use electric energy as the heat source produced by the electric arc. IS:816 in this process, the base metal and the welding rod are heated to the fusion temperature by an electric arc. The arc is a continuous spark formed when a large current at a low voltage is discharged between the electrode and the base metal through a thermally ionised gaseous column, called plasma. The resistance of the air or gas between the electrode and the objects being welded changes the electric energy into heat. A temperature of 33000 C to 55000 C is produced in the arc. The welding rod is connected to one terminal of the current source and the object to be welded to the other. In arc welding, fusion takes place by the flow of material from the welding rod across the arc without pressure being applied. The Shielded Metal Arc Welding process is explained in the following paragraph. In Shielded Metal Arc Welding or SMAW (Fig. 3. 12), heating is done by means of electric arc between a coated electrode and the material being joined. In case bare wire electrode (without coating) is employed, the molten metal gets exposed to atmosphere and combines chemically with oxygen and nitrogen forming defective welds. The electrode coating on the welding rod forms a gaseous shield that helps to exclude oxygen and stabilise the arc. The coated electrode also deposits a slag in the molten metal, which because of its lesser density compared to the base metal, floats on the surface of the molten metal pool, shields it from atmosphere, and slows cooling. After cooling, the slag can be easily removed by hammering and wire brushing. Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar The coating on the electrode thus: shields the arc from atmosphere; coats the molten metal pool against oxidation; stabilises the arc; shapes the molten metal by surface tension and provides alloying element to weld metal. Fig. 3. 12 Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process Fig. 3. 12 Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process The type of welding electrode used would decide the weld properties such as strength, ductility and corrosion resistance. The type to be used for a particular job depends upon the type of metal being welded, the amount of material to be added and the position of the work. The two general classes of electrodes are lightly coated and heavily coated. The heavily coated electrodes are normally used in structural welding. The resulting welds are stronger, more corrosion resistant and more ductile compared to welds produced by lightly coated electrodes. Usually the SMAW process is either automatic or semi-automatic. The term weldability is defined as the ability to obtain economic welds, which are good, crack-free and would meet all the requirements. Of great importance are the chemistry and the structure of the base metal and the weld metal. The effects of heating and cooling associated with fusion welding are experienced by the weld metal and the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) of the base metal. The cracks in HAZ are mainly caused by high carbon content, hydrogen enbrittlement and rate of cooling. For most steels, weld cracks become a problem as the thickness of the plates increases. Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar 3. 3. 3 Types of joints and welds By means of welding, it is possible to make continuous, load bearing joints between the members of a structure. A variety of joints is used in structural steel work and they can be classified into four basic configurations namely, Lap joint, Tee joint, Butt joint and Corner joint. For lap joints, the ends of two members are overlapped and for butt joints, the two members are placed end to end. The T- joints form a Tee and in Corner joints, the ends are joined like the letter L. Most common joints are made up of fillet weld or the butt (also calling groove) weld. Plug and slot welds are not generally used in structural steel work. Fig. . 14 Fillet welds are suitable for lap joints and Tee joints and groove welds for butt and corner joints. Butt welds can be of complete penetration or incomplete penetration depending upon whether the penetration is complete through the thickness or partial. Generally a description of welded joints requires an indication of the type of both the joint an d the weld. Though fillet welds are weaker than butt welds, about 80% of the connections are made with fillet welds. The reason for the wider use of fillet welds is that in the case of fillet welds, when members are lapped over each other, large tolerances are allowed in erection. For butt welds, the members to be connected have to fit perfectly when they are lined up for welding. Further butt welding requires the shaping of the surfaces to be joined as shown in Fig. 3. 15. To ensure full penetration and a sound weld, a backup plate is temporarily provided as shown in Fig. 3. 15 Butt welds: Full penetration butt welds are formed when the parts are connected together within the thickness of the parent metal. For thin parts, it is possible to achieve full penetration of the weld. For thicker parts, edge preparation may have to be done to achieve the welding. There are nine different types of butt joints: square, single V, Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar double V, single U, double U, single J, double J, single bevel and double bevel. They are shown in Fig. 3. 13 In order to qualify for a full penetration weld; there are certain conditions to be satisfied while making the welds. Welds are also classified according to their position into flat, horizontal, vertical and overhead. Flat welds are the most economical to make while overhead welds are the most difficult and expensive. True Romance EssayDesign of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar improved. For intermediate weld positions, the value of strength and ductility show intermediate values. Fig. 3. 20 Butt welding of members with (a) (b) unequal thickness (c) unequal width In many cases, it is possible to use the simplified approach of average stresses in the weld throat (Fig. 3. 22). In order to apply this method, it is important to establish equilibrium with the applied load. Studies conducted on fillet welds have shown that the fillet weld shape is very important for end fillet welds. For equal leg lengths, making the direction of applied tension nearly parallel to the throat leads to a large reduction in strength. The optimum weld shape recommended is to provide shear leg ? 3 times the tension leg. A small variation in the side fillet connections has negligible effect on strength. In general, fillet welds are stronger in compression than in tension. Fig. 3. 21 Fillet (a) side welds and (b) end welds Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar Fig. 3. 2 Average stress in the weld throat A simple approach to design is to assume uniform fillet weld strength in all directions and to specify a certain throat stress value. The average throat thickness is obtained by dividing the applied loads summed up in vectorial form per unit length by the throat size. This method is limited in usage to cases of pure shear, tension or compression (Fig. 3. 23). It cannot be used in cases where the load vector direction varies around weld group. For the simple method, the stress is taken as the vector sum of the force components acting in the weld divided by the throat area. Fig. . 23 (a) connections with simple weld design, (b) connections with Direction- dependent weld design Stresses Due to Individual forces When subjected to either compressive or tensile or shear force alone, the stress in the weld is given by: Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar fa or q = Where P t t lw fa = calculated normal stress due to axial force in N/mm2 q = shear stress in N/mm2 P = force transmitted (axial force N or the shear force Q) tt = effective throat thickness of weld in mm lw= effective length of weld in mm Fig. 3. 4 End fillet weld normal to direction of force The design strength of a fillet weld, fwd, shall be based on its throat area (Cl. 10. 5. 7). fwd = fwn / ? mw in which fwn = f u / 3 Where fu = smaller of the u ltimate stress of the weld and the parent metal and ?mw = partial safety factor (=1. 25 for shop welds and = 1. 5 for field welds) The design strength shall be reduced appropriately for long joints as prescribed in the code. The size of a normal fillet should be taken as the minimum leg size (Fig. 3. 25) Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar Fig. 3. 5 Sizes of fillet welds For a deep penetration weld, the depth of penetration should be a minimum of 2. 4 mm. Then the size of the weld is minimum leg length plus 2. 4 mm. The size of a fillet weld should not be less than 3 mm or more than the thickness of the thinner part joined. Minimum size requirement of fillet welds is given below in Table 3. 4 (Cl. 10. 5. 2. 3). Effective throat thickness should not be less than 3 mm and should not exceed 0. 7 t and 1. 0 t under special circumstances, where’t’ is the thickness of thinner part. Table 3. 4 Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld Thickness of thicker part (mm) t ? 0 10 t ? 20 20 t ? 32 32 t ? 50 Minimum size (mm) 3 5 6 8 (First run)10 (Minimum size of fillet) For stress calculations, the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet size, where K is a constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in Table 3. 5 (Cl. 10. 5. 3. 2). Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose fusion faces form angles between 60Â ° and 120Â °. The actual length is taken as the length having the effective length plus twice the weld size. Minimum effective length should not be less than four times the weld size. When a fillet weld is provided to square edge of a part, the weld size should be at least 1. 5 mm less than the edge Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar thickness . For the rounded toe of a rolled section, the weld size should not exceed 3/4 thickness of the section at the toe (Cl. 10. 5. 8. 1). Fig. 3. 26 (a) Fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) Fillet Welds on round toe of rolled section Table 3. 5. Value of K for different angles between fusion faces Angle between fusion faces Constant K 60Â ° 90Â ° 0. 0 91Â °-100Â ° 0. 65 101Â °-106Â ° 0. 60 107Â °-113Â ° 0. 55 114Â °-120Â ° 0. 50 Intermittent fillet welds may be provided where the strength required is less than that can be developed by a continuous fillet weld of the smallest allowable size for the parts joined. The length of intermediate welds should not be less than 4 times the weld size with a minimum of 40 mm. The clear spacin g between the effective lengths of the intermittent welds should be less than or equal to 12 times the thickness of the thinner member in compression and 16 times in tension; in no case the length should exceed 20 cm. Chain intermittent welding is better than staggered intermittent welding. Intermittent fillet welds are not used in main members exposed to weather. For lap joints, the overlap should not be less than five times the thickness of the thinner part. For fillet welds to be used in slots and holes, the dimension of the slot or hole should comply with the following limits: a) The width or diameter should not be less than three times the thickness or 25 mm whichever is greater b) Corners at the enclosed ends or slots should be rounded with a radius not less than 1. times the thickness or 12 mm whichever is greater, and Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar c) The distance between the edge of the part and the edge of the slot or hole, or between adjacent slots or holes, should be not less than twice the thickness and not less than 25 mm for the holes. Fig. 3. 27 End returns for side welds The effective area of a plug weld is assumed as the nominal area of the whole in the plane of the faying surface. Plug welds are not designed to carry stresses. If two or more of the general types of weld (butt, fillet, plug or slots) are combined in a single joint, the effective capacity of each has to be calculated separately with reference to the axis of the group to determine the capacity of the welds. The high stress concentration at ends of welds is minimised by providing welds around the ends as shown in Fig. 3. 27. These are called end returns. Most designers neglect end returns in the effective length calculation of the weld. End returns are invariably provided for welded joints that are subject to eccentricity, impact or stress reversals. The end returns are provided for a distance not less than twice the size of the weld. Design of plug and slot welds: In certain instances, the lengths available for the normal longitudinal fillet welds may not be sufficient to resist the loads. In such a situation, the required strength may be built up by welding along the back of the channel at the edge of the plate if sufficient space is available. This is shown in Fig. . 28 (a). Another way of developing the required strength is by providing slot or plug welds. Slot and plug welds are generally used along with fillet welds in lap joints. On certain occasions, plug welds are used to fill the holes that are temporarily made for erection bolts for beam and Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar column connections. However, their strength ma y not be considered in the overall strength of the joint. The limitations given in specifications for the maximum sizes of plug and slot welds are necessary to avoid large shrinkage, which might be caused around these welds when they exceed the specified sizes. The strength of a plug or slot weld is calculated by considering the allowable stress and its nominal area in the shearing plane. This area is usually referred to as the faying surface and is equal to the area of contact at the base of the slot or plug. The length of the slot weld can be obtained from the following relationship: Load ( Width ) allowable stress L= (3. 15) Fig. 3. 28 Slot and plug welds Indian Institute of Technology Madras